24시출장샵
  • 광양조건 만남 카페
  • 목포출장샵
  • 카지노사이트
  • 영암자지 마사지
  • 광양출장안마⇁24시출장샵╝광양아로마마사지 팁『광양고시촌 안마방』╂﹛광양송원장 마사지﹜▄광양부산 여관 가격↝광양안마방 ㅅㅅ╜광양삿포로 안마방╝광양미금역 안마방⊙광양안마방 의자

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    천안출장샵
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    광양출장안마╩출장부르는법☱광양아로마마사지 팁『광양안마방 미시』◈﹛광양여인숙 여자﹜큐광양타이 마사지►광양로미로미 마사지◐광양용원 마사지.광양안마방 강남⇗광양안마방 전화

    The governments of more than 190 nations 천안천안 출장 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    광양출장안마╄출장부르는법┃광양아로마마사지 팁『광양안마방 몇시』»﹛광양서울역 마사지﹜▪광양익산 모텔 추천☈광양만수동 마사지♜광양안마방 똥까시⇂광양동탄 마사지 후기⇥광양현풍 마사지

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    광양출장안마ⓛ예약금없는출장샵┦광양아로마마사지 팁『광양전국 안마방』╃﹛광양아로마 마사지 효능﹜¤광양안면 비대칭 마사지▥광양광명 마사지₪광양덕계 마사지➥광양한국마사지➻광양수원역 마사지

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 카지노사이트 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    광양출장안마↔예약금없는출장샵┶광양아로마마사지 팁『광양마사지 샤워기』⇄﹛광양사가정 마사지﹜★광양마사지 움짤╓광양평택 모텔 가격↤광양홍대 마사지♨광양하당 마사지チ광양일본마사지

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 양양을지로 안마방 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    광양출장안마♧출장부르는법⇦광양아로마마사지 팁『광양진접 안마방』⇙﹛광양안마방 오전﹜╚광양얼굴 경락 마사지☎광양안마방 비용☈광양화곡동 안마방☍광양안마방 김치남⇦광양방이동 안마방

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 울산출장안마 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    광양출장안마광양안마방 용어

  • 인천현풍 안마방
  • 광양엄태웅 안마방
  • 광양출장안마
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    광양출장안마★예약✉광양아로마마사지 팁『광양온양 마사지』╩﹛광양송내 마사지﹜➻광양니시미야 코노미 마사지♦광양필고✄광양마사지 ㅅㅅ♥광양동암역 마사지☀광양노량진 안마방

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 창녕해피 오렌지 출장 샵 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 카지노사이트 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    포항출장안마
    강진부천 대딸방 구미출장안마 평택판상근 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 대구출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    광양출장안마⊕예약금없는출장샵ロ광양아로마마사지 팁『광양천안 출장 만남』⇛﹛광양광주 스타 안마방﹜↿광양진주시 안마방√광양출장샵안내➛광양온양 마사지テ광양정준호 안마방⇪광양출장마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 인천정지훈 안마방 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    광양출장안마╜예약▨광양아로마마사지 팁『광양코 높아지는 마사지』➹﹛광양수내 마사지﹜ω광양양평 안마방↺광양안마방 가성비☠광양계양구 안마방η광양아로마마사지 팁♬광양안마방 모텔

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the dr-choi.xyz .

    포천출장 보증금
    태백베트남 하노이 마사지 온라인카지노 인천천안안마
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    광양출장안마κ예약✒광양아로마마사지 팁『광양역삼 마사지』]﹛광양부산역 모텔 추천﹜↪광양얼굴 작아지는 마사지♜광양콧대 높이는 마사지κ광양안마방 똥까시☭광양일본인 안마방✂광양안마방 방구

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 구미출장안마 .

    광양출장안마⇀예약금없는출장샵╁광양아로마마사지 팁『광양다낭 vip 마사지』↾﹛광양비키니 마사지﹜↷광양av 마사지 추천☠광양진주 오피┻광양안마방 젤☚ 광양마사지 젤⇩광양천안 출장

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 카지노사이트 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 밀양오일 마사지 야동 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    광양출장안마▨예약금없는출장샵↺광양아로마마사지 팁『광양안마방 아침』◑﹛광양타이 출장 마사지﹜⇂광양안마방 전화번호 저장►광양안마방 보지╢광양모텔♝광양오송 마사지μ광양콜걸만남

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    광양출장안마♚예약금없는출장샵ク광양아로마마사지 팁『광양마사지 로드샵』↨﹛광양fc2 한국 마사지﹜✓광양아마 시안❀광양안마방 태국녀╅광양림프절 마사지┘광양티켓 썰ο광양서울 출장 후기

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 하동감성 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 온라인카지노 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 구미출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 경상북도부산 출장안마 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 바카라사이트 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    광양출장안마☺출장부르는법↖광양아로마마사지 팁『광양타이마사지 추천』◄﹛광양사북 마사지﹜✡광양용암동 마사지⇋광양마사지 섹스╀광양산호동 마사지↣광양변비 마사지☠광양안마방 ssul

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 구미출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 카지노사이트 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 대전출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    광양출장안마φ예약금없는출장샵♛광양아로마마사지 팁『광양속초 모텔 추천』➹﹛광양안마방 모텔﹜♧광양신천 모텔⇡광양아로마 마사지 효능➻광양안마방 처음☒광양fc2 남친 마사지✈광양안마방 핸드폰

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    창녕안마방 알바 단속
    원주출장샵 시흥출장마사지 egw.xyz
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    광양출장안마╚예약✃광양아로마마사지 팁『광양섹스 마사지』♀﹛광양사상 안마방﹜❤광양거제 마사지☺광양체코 마사지 토렌트★광양로미로미 마사지♪ 광양거제 옥포 안마방┬광양마사지 야.동

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.광양출장안마광양철산 안마방♡광양강원 랜드 근처 마사지↓﹛광양태국 아로마 마사지﹜광양강릉 여관⇢광양안마방 경험λ광양아가씨 썰⇋광양부산 안마방 추천 창원출장샵예약광양자궁 마사지⊿광양전주 마사지◎《광양별내 안마방》광양체코 마사지 토렌트⇁광양안동 마사지╊광양게이 안마방╦광양콜걸출장마사지▪광양출장안마경상북도교대 마사지광양독산동 마사지♡광양라오스 마사지 2차▥﹛광양복부 마사지﹜광양북창동 후기メ광양종아리 근육 마사지╈광양출장안마☟광양강남 안마방 위치囍광양승모근 마사지▨광양대전 커플 마사지×〖광양여자 안마방〗광양안마방 홈런☻광양공덕 마사지∴광양정왕동 안마방♠광양마사지 전단지▤광양오피스 방☇광양독산동 마사지﹄﹛광양동해 안마방﹜광양서울샵█광양불광동 마사지◘광양여주 안마방┭광양모텔 티켓♥광양video.fc2.com 마사지┋광양다방 모텔┩‹광양서울 마사지›광양성내동 안마방✲광양마사지 공떡☜광양대전 안마방⇞광양김무열 마사지⇩예약충주장한평 안마방예약금없는출장샵광양삼성역 마사지✄광양계룡시 안마방♀‹광양동작구 안마방›광양마사지 효능♮광양남양주시 안마방⇙광양마사지 로드샵➛광양산본 마사지 후기⇗광양출장안마광양출장안마구미출장안마광양건식 마사지광양안마방 오픈시간광양답십리 마사지광양안마방 porn광양출장안마광양발바닥 마사지╛광양스포츠 마사지 자격증▪{광양스포츠 마사지 자격증}광양금천구 마사지τ광양안마방 아다☄광양안마방 교복⇩광양출장 서비스┛칠곡다낭 호텔 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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