예약금없는출장샵
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  • 해남출장맛사지╯예약금없는출장샵✍해남카메라 마사지﹝해남구로 마사지﹞♕「해남상하이 마사지」☎해남출장안마♀해남텔레그램 야동♮해남파타야 마사지➵해남문정동 마사지▽해남부산 모텔 추천

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    평택출장샵
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    해남출장맛사지⇪24시출장샵.해남카메라 마사지﹝해남이천 마사지﹞ツ「해남콜걸후기」⇃해남안마방 몰카 tumblr◙해남공주 안마방╗해남일본 안마방 야동┳해남안마방 아이돌✄해남사상구 마사지

    The governments of more than 190 nations 부여신천 모텔 추천 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    해남출장맛사지⇤24시출장샵☇해남카메라 마사지﹝해남전민동 마사지﹞﹃「해남성인마사지」£해남선입금 없는 출장 만남♂해남신림동 여관┽해남강남 안마방 내상↕해남안마방 대딸﹃해남타이마사지 불법

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    해남출장맛사지✿예약금없는출장샵⇖해남카메라 마사지﹝해남압구정 마사지﹞♂「해남모텔 부산」⇤해남천안 안마방⇣해남경락 마사지╊해남음경 마사지0해남커플 마사지 방법↚해남고잔동 마사지

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 전주출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    해남출장맛사지⇠예약❖해남카메라 마사지﹝해남신천 모텔 추천﹞⇘「해남천안역 여관」↺해남강남 왁싱샵⇃해남현풍 안마방§해남안마방 몰카◢해남서귀포 마사지▪해남오리역 안마방

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 의성청주 안마방 가격 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    해남출장맛사지↮예약➹해남카메라 마사지﹝해남발바닥 마사지﹞↘「해남나고야 여성전용 마사지」☺해남고양이 마사지♀해남구의 안마방♠해남이하루 마사지⇂해남부평 마사지┣해남창원 봉곡동 안마방

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    해남출장맛사지해남안마방 엄마

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    해남출장맛사지η예약ヒ해남카메라 마사지﹝해남출장안마 후기﹞▌「해남일본식 마사지」↕해남원주 마사지➴해남안마방 어플↕해남창녕 마사지♭해남주안 모텔 추천ヨ해남신설동 안마방

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 과천용산구 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 카지노사이트 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    온라인카지노.xyz
    영암혼자 안마방 수원출장안마 남원수내 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 카지노사이트 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    해남출장맛사지♫24시출장샵☀해남카메라 마사지﹝해남1인샵 마사지﹞╧「해남눈커지는 마사지」⊙해남안마방 숙박♝해남얼굴 마사지 기계△해남오일 마사지 av⇄해남안마방 똥꼬☠해남가오슝 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 계룡와이프 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    해남출장맛사지┌24시출장샵☟해남카메라 마사지﹝해남호이안 마사지﹞➻「해남출장태국마사지」☾해남오피걸☀해남오일 마사지 야동☏해남호치민 마사지✐해남춘천 마사지 후기♬해남신림 모텔

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 울산출장안마 .

    화순아줌마 안마방
    대전동대구 마사지 바카라사이트 경상남도동대구 모텔
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    해남출장맛사지✥출장부르는법»해남카메라 마사지﹝해남마포구 안마방﹞♣「해남여자 안마방」☜해남아비게일 마사지╍해남서양 마사지♐해남대구 커플 동영상☻해남강남 타이마사지↚해남안마방 용어

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 대전출장샵 .

    해남출장맛사지┾출장부르는법ウ해남카메라 마사지﹝해남pornhub 안마방﹞웃「해남마사지 할인」☪해남제천 안마방▦해남제천 안마방❥해남안마방 유출╞해남안마방 하늘이⇥해남안마방 카드

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 카지노사이트 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 제천대전 커플 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    해남출장맛사지┐예약금없는출장샵✖해남카메라 마사지﹝해남에이미 av﹞↺「해남삼계 안마방」⇠해남안마방 단속↡해남선입금 출장⇪해남출장서비스★해남제주도 안마방 추천↬해남제천 안마방

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    해남출장맛사지↔예약금없는출장샵✄해남카메라 마사지﹝해남출장 선입금﹞╪「해남계룡 안마방」╣해남베트남 안마방↷해남소라넷 마사지▷해남부산 모텔☎해남안마방 찾는법☎해남밀양 안마방

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 보은텔레그램 야동 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 포항출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 대전출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 과천안마방 오피 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 천안출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    해남출장맛사지┍예약금없는출장샵┶해남카메라 마사지﹝해남24시간 안마방﹞シ「해남보령 마사지」┾해남마사지 텀블러➴해남종아리 근육 마사지⇖해남단양 안마방♭해남머리 마사지┄해남수유 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 바카라사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 카지노사이트 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 광주출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    해남출장맛사지↺예약금없는출장샵♕해남카메라 마사지﹝해남제주도 안마방﹞◎「해남피부 마사지」┍해남천안 조건↶해남신도림 마사지§해남포항 북구 안마방♖해남여대생 마사지⇊해남거유 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    고흥중앙동 안마방
    포항출장안마 태백눈커지는 마사지 광주출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    해남출장맛사지┯예약.해남카메라 마사지﹝해남안마방 첫경험﹞✦「해남냥이 마사지」│해남안마방 대기╨해남안마방 추천◣해남필리핀 안마방⇪해남안마방 의자▨해남인계동 안마방 후기

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.해남출장맛사지해남태국 에스코트 비용メ해남24시간 안마방♔「해남칠곡 마사지」해남동네 안마방▪해남포항 마사지▪해남등 마사지▲해남동대구 마사지♣카지노사이트출장부르는법해남호구포 마사지✄해남마사지 효능↣<해남이태원 마사지>해남안마방 튜브╬해남홍방장 안마방ウ해남수내역 마사지◐해남콜걸출장안마↪해남출장맛사지대구마사지 ㅁㅎㅎ해남성감 마사지┢해남모텔 출장마사지◦[해남성감 마사지]해남구미 봉곡동 마사지⇔해남타이마사지 섹스♀해남코 마사지 효과▐해남안마방 예약♖해남안마방 후장⇘해남범일동 마사지♣‹해남안마방 찾는법›해남부산 마사지╣해남호텔 걸▬해남고양이 안마방╓해남오피걸✥해남이하루 마사지U해남음경 마사지◁〈해남여성 마사지〉해남안마방 지루⇤해남마사지 팁⇤해남하노이 마사지ღ해남지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성 전용 마사지☞해남장유 안마방☼해남천안 카페⇟『해남태국마사지 후기』해남김해 장유 안마방ル해남마사지 구분☎해남안마방 골뱅이⇩해남다리 마사지★예약창원용산역 마사지24시출장샵해남안마방 번호⇎해남남자 안마방▒[해남여성 전용 마사지 알바]해남노원 마사지↺해남호치민 리버티 마사지♨해남안마방 시스템♭해남송도 안마방❈해남출장맛사지해남출장맛사지진주출장샵해남태국 마사지 후기해남안마방 ㅇㄷ해남사가정 마사지해남석계 안마방해남출장맛사지해남엘림 마사지フ해남해운대 출장カ〈해남발바닥 마사지〉해남수유 마사지∷해남대전 모텔 추천↤해남선입금 출장❈해남호이안 마사지▶제주도안마방 스킬

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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